Wageningen University & Research has carried out an exploratory study commissioned by the Dutch province of Zeeland. The report describes the results of an inventory based on existing literature of the (possible) effects of silvo-arable agroforestry on nitrogen flows. The report also provides an interpretation of how the nitrogen dynamics in agroforestry systems differ from those of monoculture arable farming.

This report summarizes the (im)possibilities, the opportunities and the developments that are necessary for the realization of more agroforestry in the Dutch province of Zeeland. The agricultural entrepreneurs in this Dutch province may be able to use the opportunities of agroforestry in different ways and for different reasons than entrepreneurs in other provinces, due to the fact that the province of Zeeland has the most hours of sunshine in the Netherlands, as well as strong winds and a lot of tourism. In addition, there is a lot of fruit growing experience and expertise in the province of Zeeland, which can be valuable for growers who want to start with agroforestry. Moreover, this also creates opportunities for cooperation (between arable farmers and fruit growers) and the sharing of machines, which can lower the threshold to start with agroforestry. On the other hand, there may be specific obstacles for this province, such as (sweet water) salinisation and the characteristic open landscape.

This inspirational document has been developed by researchers of Wageningen University and Research. This report is meant to inspire stakeholders in agroforestry research, advisory and farmers who intend to engage in (the co-design of) integrated agroforestry production systems and business models. The document consists of international (mainly tropical) examples and lessons learnt from several case studies.

The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is exploring options to stimulate the implementation of agroforestry in the Netherlands. To facilitate support for the planting of trees and shrubs on agricultural land, it is being investigated whether agroforestry can be included in the Dutch incentive schemes for green (nature) and blue (water) ecosystem services on farmland. However, there are concerns about agroforestry as a possible route of introduction for invasive alien species. These can spread and multiply quickly outside an agroforestry plot, displacing native species. The Ministry of Agriculture has therefore asked for guidelines to be drawn up for agroforestry in the context of reducing the risk of invasive alien species on Dutch nature. This report contains advice for using a negative (plant species) list when planting agroforestry.

This booklet describes the search of a group of agricultural entrepreneurs for a suitable design for the application of agroforestry on their farm. Despite the fact that agroforestry is a relatively new concept in the Netherlands, six pioneers in arable farming have dared to start with agroforestry on their farms. In this brochure you can read about the experiences of these entrepreneurs: what was their motivation, how was the first step taken, how did they come to a well-informed design choice, what are their experiences with and after the planting of trees and what tips do they give to other farmers who want to start with agroforestry? We hope that this brochure will inspire other arable farmers and help them answer the question of whether, and if so, in what form, agroforestry is suitable for their farm.

This factsheet is intended for agricultural entrepreneurs, advisers and policymakers. The attention for agroforestry in the Netherlands has increased greatly in recent years. Agroforestry is increasingly mentioned as a possibility to make Dutch agriculture more future-proof, both in terms of ecology and economy. To determine whether and how agroforestry can contribute to a more sustainable agricultural system, it is important to investigate how agroforestry systems perform in areas such as biodiversity, soil, climate adaptation and mitigation, but also in terms of yield and labour. This factsheet presents the results of two years of monitoring in agroforestry systems on the arable farms of two Dutch agroforestry pioneers.

This factsheet is intended for agroforestry researchers, advisers and policymakers. Climate change creates challenges in agriculture, making climate adaptation an important theme. Climate adaptation means adapting to climate change, but also exploiting opportunities and limiting damage caused by changing climate conditions. This factsheet outlines the role agroforestry systems can play in increasing the resilience of agricultural production systems to climate change. Many of the figures in this factsheet have been obtained from research with a climate different from the current Dutch climate. An attempt has been made to make the figures as relevant as possible for agroforestry in the Netherlands, and to indicate the uncertainties where they are present.

This factsheet is intended for agroforestry researchers and advisers. Agroforestry is an agricultural system that has hardly been studied in the Netherlands to date. Because it is expected that agroforestry can make a valuable contribution to future-proof agriculture and solving social challenges, an agroforestry research facility was created in 2021 that enables silvoarable agroforestry research. The facility is aimed at testing the hypothesis that agroforestry can be an economically attractive cropping system for arable farmers in wind-sensitive and open landscapes in the Netherlands, while simultaneously serving other social goals. Because the considerations and choices made in the design of the agroforestry trial fields may also be of interest to other stakeholders, this factsheet explains the background and design of the research facility. With this factsheet we hope to increase insight and interest in the trial fields and also to contribute to well thought-out designs of agroforestry systems elsewhere.

This factsheet is intended for farmers and advisers. There are many important choices to make when designing agroforestry systems and the planting pattern is one of them. There are thousands of options and choosing the right layout will have a huge impact on the yield and quality of the field crops, trees and livestock in addition to the ease of management. The key choices for the tree planting pattern regard the: tree spacing, tree species and cultivar spatial diversity, tree row orientation and planting shape. Each of these four choices affects a multitude of factors including; tree-crop interactions, yield, mechanisation, labour, pollination and biodiversity. In this factsheet, we will discuss these key choices so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the most suitable choice for a farm.

This factsheet is intended for agricultural entrepreneurs with an interest in mycorriza. Information about mycorrhizal symbioses can increasingly be found in popular scientific articles. Mycorrhizal symbioses are also used by pioneering arable farmers. Yet for the general public, but also for the professional, this plant-fungus relationship often remains a fairly elusive phenomenon. This unfamiliarity stands in the way of practical application. This factsheet therefore first aims to clarify the most important properties and functions of mycorrhizal relationships between plants and fungi. Possible natural applications in agriculture and agroforestry are also discussed, making use of the mycorrhizal fungi that are already present in the soil. (Artificial inoculation is not covered in this factsheet).


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